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» National Park – Areas along the Dráva
National Park – Areas along the Dráva
The Duna-Dráva National Park was established along the Danube and Dráva rivers, covering an area of some 50.000 hectares. Water played the main role in the formation of its natural landscape. The two rivers and their water determined the development of a great variety of habitats, where a colourful ecosystem can be found. Almost the whole of the national park is located in an area, which was formerly a flood-basin.

The Dráva region

The Dráva rises from the Tirol Alps and reaches Hungary at Őrtilos. The river flows fast, its bed has a steep slope and carries a lot of sediment. Its slope is gradually decreased and the sediment is deposited. Sand bars are typical formations of the Dráva. Their formation and destruction is continuous, so their location is changing constantly. They are typical habitats for pioneer vegetation. Myricaria, a relative of the tamarisk, occurs only here in Hungary. Its reddish flowers yield in garlands from May. The riverside is accompanied by small flood-plain forests, where white willow, white poplar, and black poplar are the plants of the foliage level. Of the shrubs, the common dogwood occurs frequently, but guelder roses can also be found. In the rich underwood, ferns such as the southern adderstongue and horsetail are protected and, at places, they can be found in masses. The next station in the sequence is the park forest of oak, ash, and elm at the heights. Of the herbs, a mention must be made of the squill (Scilla drunensis), the aroid, the sword-leaved helleborine, the black bryony, and the thin spiked wood sedge. In Hungary, the hills of Zákány and Őrtilos represent unique places to find Illyrian beech and Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests. This is the only place in Hungary where the Anemone trifolia, the bitter-cress, and the balm-leaved achangel live. At locations of earlier disforestation, secondary habitats, such as wet or swampy meadows have formed. Rare flowers of those meadows are the Siberian iris, the early marsh orchid, the lax-flowered orchis, and the sweet flag, which is easy to recognize of its flower.

The Barcsi Borókás (Barcs Juniper Forest) is an acidophilous vegetation, which has formed on an acid soil of sand, where mosses, lichens, and fescue (Fescuta vaginata) occur first, followed by a sandy grassland vegetation. Rare plants of the place include the black small pasqueflower, the Peucedanum arenarium, and the dwarf everlast. In the areas that are not drained, marsh forests have formed. On the “footed” alder trees, bog mosses and crested wood ferns grow. This is the only place where we can see royal ferns and brideworts.

There is a great variety of habitats in the Dráva region of the National Park with some 4500 species of animals. The Platyphylax frauenfeldi indicates that the water of the Dráva is still clean, the only population in the world lives here. Caddis flies and mayflies spend their long larva period in the water. Their mature lifespan is definitely short and their only task is reproduction. Rare representatives of Hungarian fish species are the highly protected Danube salmon, the zingel, the grayling and the ship sturgeon. The little tern, the little ringed plover, and the common tern nest on dreary gravel bars.

The “high riverside”, a vertical face of loess accompanying the river provides habitat to the sand Martin and the European bee-eater, but some common kingfishers and hoopoes also put their nests here. The Dráva has a determining role in the migration and wintering of water birds. After the standing waters freeze, thousands of birds gather on the water surface. Freyer’s purple emperor inhabits the soft wood bosks, while, in bosks of hardwood and in forests with fresh foliage, the round-mouthed snail and the Helicigona planospira, this latter occurring only here in Hungary. Concerning our values in the birds’ world, the white-tailed eagle, the black stork and the black kite are under a special protection.

Formerly, the inhabitants of the villages along the river mainly dealt with stock-farming. They grazed cattle, foal, sheep and pig. In the wells that remained in the grazing-lands, Hart’s tongue ferns grow. In the ancient trees of the graze lands, stag beetles and great capricorn beetles develop. In the holes of the trees, starlings, tree sparrows, and the rare hoopoes put their nests. Some of the old professions, such as wooden trough making and basketwork, were practised near the soft wood basks. The hard wood forests offered excellent quality materials for building fortifications with defensive walls or for making potassium carbonate. In some of the villages of the Orbánság region, i.e. Kórós, Drávaiványi, Adorjás, Kovácshida, painted coffers can be seen in churches.
2011. 07. 06. Oldal nyomtatása
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